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The computer program, KARMA® [1], developed by karma2go, LLC, is a three-dimensional, inelastic, nonlinear, static and dynamic response analysis program. It is based on finite element formulations for structures subjected to environmental loads. A coupled foundation structure, 3-D nonlinear dynamic failure analyses of land-based and offshore structures can be performed. KARMA is a result of 22 years of in-house and oil industry sponsored research and development.

The program's capabilities can be effectively used to evaluate ductility, failure modes or structural integrity of a variety of onshore structures (bridges, overpasses, high-rise buildings, stadiums, hangers, transmission towers, high-tech manufacturing facilities, etc.) and offshore structures (jacket type, jack-up rigs, deep-water compliant structures, floating systems, tension leg platforms, riser/cable systems, etc.). Wherever possible, the program's methodology has been verified using model scale and full scale experimental data.

Linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed in the time domain. Alternately, linear dynamic analyses for earthquake loads may be performed in the frequency domain (response spectrum analyses). Environmental loads may be earthquake, wind, hurricane, wave, boat impact, or any generalized loading. Eigensolutions of large 3-D complex systems may be performed using state-of-the-art methods. The program can handle material (steel, concrete, reinforced concrete, soil, wood, masonry) as well as geometric nonlinearities.

Comprehensive risk analyses and fatigue analyses can be performed including all nonlinear effects. An extensive post-processor exists in KARMA. It also performs member design checks based on latest codes and includes the interface to the 3-D general purpose visualization and animation program, SWAMI® [2] . Thus results from KARMA can be visualized and animated using SWAMI. Alternately, KARMA models can be interactively built with SWAMI's 3-D graphics capability. Some of KARMA's special features are listed.

  • Automated seismic risk assessment capability.
  • Key word oriented input structure.
  • Input data echo and extensive data checking capability.
  • Automated generation of inelastic properties.
  • Profile minimizer to optimize storage and computations.
  • Flexible boundary conditions handling through master/slave or multi-point constraints.
  • A generalized damping formulation to allow user specified damping ratios in as many modes as desired.
  • Automated earthquake load profile generation for static pushover analysis.
  • Extensive element library for structure, soil, foundation, and specialized applications.
  • Flexible and comprehensive load definition options including member loads and dynamic wind gusts.
  • Automated self-tracking static and dynamic analysis capabilities.
  • State-of-the-art fatigue analysis options which include all nonlinear effects.
  • Comprehensive post-processing and interfaces to 3-D photo-realistic graphics and animation with lighting and shading (Program SWAMI).

KARMA is computationally very efficient. Static, dynamic failure modes of structures including joint failures and member failures, subjected to earthquakes, wind, hurricane, or most any environmental load. Seismic, wave, wind retrofit of steel, reinforced concrete, wood, masonry, tilt-up structures is one such application. Other applications may be classified as reassessment of existing structures or ultimate capacity evaluation of new structures. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction is consistently considered in the nonlinear static analysis and/or in the nonlinear dynamic time history analysis.

Some of the typical applications are listed below.

  • Seismicrisk assessments.
  • Feasibility studies of new structure concepts.
  • Seismic evaluation of existing and new structures such as bridges, buildings, public facilities, stadiums, airport facilities, hangers, runways, mission critical manufacturing facilities, etc.
  • Nonlinear dynamic analyses of cable systems, moored systems, suspended systems.
  • Storage tanks.
  • Soil-structure interaction of structures.
  • Designing and evaluating experiments on structure-foundation models.
  • Damage evaluation due to on-site hazards.
  • Research on component behaviors.
  • Complex joints.
  • Nonlinear analyses of onshore and offshore pipelines.
  • Nonlinear dynamic analyses of deep-water compliant structures like the guyed tower, buoyant tower, articulated tower, tension leg platform, and compliant piled tower.
  • Sub-sea well foundation systems.

[1] KARMA is a registered trademark of karma2go, LLC, San Francisco, CA.
[2] SWAMI is a registered trademark of karma2go, LLC, San Francisco, CA.